Arbidol
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Reference
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2007 - 2005
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Pre 1990

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New studies of Arbidol are being published all over the world. There is a need to get the information online for current reference. Studies will posted as they become available. Some of the new data will still be in the original language of publication like Russian, Chinese, German and other languages. The timeliness of current research out weights the need to translate before posting.

Please request studies you want translated first.

New Arbidol Studies:


J. Mass Spectrom. 2008; 43: 1099–1109 Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 646 Songtao Road, Shanghai 201203, China English publication .pdf

Metabolite identification of arbidol in human urine by the study of CID fragmentation pathways using HPLC coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry

Yuya Wang, Xiaoyan Chen, Qiang Li and Dafang Zhong*

The metabolism of arbidol in humans was studied using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) after an oral dose of 300-mg arbidol. A total of 17 metabolites were identified including the glucuronide arbidol and the glucuronide sulfinylarbidol as the major metabolites.


Vopr Virusol. 2008 Jan-Feb;53(1):31-3 (Russian publication .pdf) English translation not available at this time

Evaluation of the efficacy of wiferon and arbidol in adult influenza

Kolobukhina LV, Malinovskaia VV, Gatich RZ, Merkulova LN, Burtseva EI, Isaeva EI, Parshina OV, Guseva TS, Orlova TG, Voronina FV

The therapeutic efficacy of wiferon (recombinant alpha2beta-interferon) versus arbidol was studied in a double-blind controlled study in patients with laboratorily verified influenza. Within the first 24-36 hours after the onset of the disease, wiferon and arbidol reduced the duration of fever, intoxication, and the catarrhal symptoms of the disease as a whole. The agents were shown to have an immunomodulating effect.

Original Russian Document .pdf


Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russia; 2Chemical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Moscow, Russia; 3IBCP; CNRS, UMR 5086; Université Lyon 1; IFR 128, Lyon, France; 4 Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, USA English publication .pdf

Arbidol: A Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Compound that Blocks Viral Fusion

Y.S. Boriskin, I. A. Leneva, E.-I. Pécheur and S. J. Polyak*

Arbidol (ARB; ethyl-6-bromo-4-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-[(phenylthio)methyl]-indole-3-carboxylate hydrochloride monohydrate), is a Russian-made potent broad-spectrum antiviral with demonstrated activity against a number of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. ARB is well known in Russia and China, although to a lesser extent in western countries. Unlike other broad-spectrum antivirals, ARB has an established molecular mechanism of action against influenza A and B viruses, which is different from that of available influenza antivirals, and a more recently established mechanism of inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV). For both viral infections the anti-viral mechanism involves ARB inhibition of virus-mediated fusion with target membrane and a resulting block of virus entry into target cells. However, ARB inhibition of fusion exploits different ARB modalities in case of influenza viruses or HCV. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of ARB effects against different groups of viruses, also, to compare various aspects of ARB anti-fusion mechanisms against influenza virus and HCV (with reference to different stringency of pH-dependence of these two viral fusogens) and to discuss further prospects for ARB and its improved derivatives of the parent compounds.


State Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, P.R. China English publication .pdf

Antiviral activity of arbidol against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus and adenovirus in vitro and in vivo

Shi L, Xiong H, He J, Deng H, Li Q, Zhong Q, Hou W, Cheng L, Xiao H, Yang Z.

Arbidol, ethyl-6-bromo-4-[(dimethylamino)-methyl] -5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2- [(phenylthio)methyl]- in dole-3-carboxylate hydrochloride monohydrate, is an antiviral chemical agent. In this report, we studied the antiviral activity of arbidol against a panel of human respiratory viruses, namely influenza A virus (FLU-A, A/PR/8/34 H1N1), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus type 14 (HRV 14), coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and adenovirus type 7 (AdV-7) in vitro in cell culture. Arbidol was found to present potent inhibitory activity against enveloped and non-enveloped RNA viruses, including FLU-A, RSV, HRV 14 and CVB3 when added before, during, or after viral infection, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranging from 2.7 to 13.8 microg/ml. However, arbidol showed selective antiviral activity against AdV-7, a DNA virus, only when added after infection (therapeutic index (TI) = 5.5). Orally administered arbidol at 50 or 100 mg/kg/day beginning 24 h pre-virus exposure for 6 days significantly reduced mean pulmonary virus yields and the rate of mortality in mice infected with FLU-A (A/PR/8/34 H1N1).

Our results suggest that arbidol has the ability to elicit protective broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a number of human pathogenic respiratory viruses.


Volprosy Virusologii Volume: 51 Issue: 5 2006 Pages 4-7 English translation not available at this time

Rimantadine and arbidol sensitivity of influenza viruses that caused epidemic morbidity rise in Russia in the 2004-2005 season

The study of the activity of arbidol against epidemic influenza A and B virus strains (2002-2005) in the cultured MDCK cells showed the higher sensitivity of enzyme immunoassay than that of hemagglutination test. The influenza A virus strains tested, including those resistant to rimantadine (5 microg/ml), were sensitive to arbidol (10 microg/ml). The population of influenza B virus strains was heterogeneous in this indicator, 43% of the strains being less sensitive to arbidol. There was an increase in the number of rimantadine-resistant influenza A(H3N2) virus strains (10-18%) in our country during 3 epidemic seasons. The sequencing analysis of protein M2-endoding gene revealed the amino acid replacement of serine by asparagine in position 31, which is characteristic of rimantadine-resistant strains. Arbidol in combination with rimantadine potentiated the effect of viral reproduction in the cultured cells, as compared with the effect produced by the same concentrations of the drugs used alone.

Original Russian Document .pdf


Health UA 10 4 2006 English (professional translation .pdf)

Specific Molecular-Biological Actions of the Antiviral Drug Arbidol

Arbidol is an antiviral drug which is effective against Group A and B influenza strains. The molecular-biological action which distinguishes Arbidol from other drugs is its ability to inhibit viral reproduction in the early stages; the drug acts by changing the regulation of cell metabolism. Arbidol differs from rimantadine in the molecular mechanism of its antiviral action.

Original Russian Document .pdf


Volprosy Virusologii Volume: 51 Issue: 5 2006 Pages 4-7 English translation not available at this time

Antiviral Etiotropic efficacy against Influenza A subtype H5N1

N.A. Leneva, A. M. Shuster

The paper analyzes data of an experimental study of the efficacy of antiviral agents (amantadine, rementadine, ozeltamivir, zanamivir, arbidol, ribavirin) in the cultured cells and on a model of murine influenza pneumonia against influenza A viruses subtype H5N1. It also gives data on their use in the treatment of human beings during avian influenza outbreak. The mechanism of action of the agents, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions, and their potential resistance are considered.

Original Russian Document .pdf


Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis Vol. 43, No. 1, pages 371-375 (2007) English translation not available at this time

Determination of arbidol in human plasma by LC-ESI-MS

Liu, X., Huang, Y.W., Li, J., Li, X.B., Bi, K.S., Chen, X.H.

Abstract: A sensitive, specific and accurate method for determination of arbidol in human plasma was developed. Arbidol and internal standard were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Shiseido C"1"8 3@mm analytical column (100mmx2.0mm i.d.) at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min isocratically. Detection was performed on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The method had a chromatographic run time of 6min and a good linear relationship over the range 1-1000ng/mL. The limit of quantitation for arbidol in plasma was 1ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision (R.S.D.%) was lower than 7% and accuracy ranged from 95 to 105%. The proposed method enables unambiguous identification and quantification of arbidol in vivo and has been successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of arbidol in healthy male Chinese volunteers.



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Statements, claims, and comments on this web site related to Aribidol are derived from published studies regarding the drug, and are merely the interpretations and summaries by arbidol.org of its understanding of those studies. The reader is encouraged to review the studies themselves and to form their own interpretation.

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