Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2006, Article In Press English publication .pdf
Determination of arbidol in human plasma by LC-ESI-MS
Xiao Lui, Yu-Wei Huang, Juan Li, Xiao-Bo Li, Kai-Shun Bi, Xiao-Hui Chen
A sensitive, specific and accurate method for determination of arbidol in human plasma
was developed. Arbidol and internal standard were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with
diethyl ether. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Shiseido C 18 3 pm.m analytical column
(100 mm x 2.0 mm i.d.) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min isocratically. Detection was performed on a single quadrupole
mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The method had
a chromatographic run time of 6 min. and a good linear relationship over the range 1-1000 ng/mL. The limit of
quantitation for arbidol in plasma was 1 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision (R.S.D. %) was lower than 7%
and accuracy ranged from 96-105%. The proposed method enables unambiguous identification and quantification of
arbidol in vivo and has been successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of arbidol in heathy male Chinese volunteers.
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;(6):
24-8. English (professional translation .html)
Characteristics of the immune status in specific and nonspecific prophylaxis
of influenza in elderly persons, March 2005
T. A. Semenenko, E. P. Seikova, T. P. Gotvyanskaya, A. D. Gaidarenko, N. A. Polezhaeva, L. F. Evseeva, O. G. Nikolaeva
The results of the comparative analysis of the immunological effectiveness of the anti-influenza vaccine Vaxigrip,
the interferon inductor arbidol and their combination in 125 elderly persons are presented. In the process of investigation, the
immunomodulating activity of the preparations under study was noted. This activity was manifested by the increase of the absolute
and relative number of cells carrying CD3+, CD4+ and CD16+ markers, but not CD8+, CD19+ or CD25+; normalization of the immunoregulatory
index and stimulation of phagocytic function without significant influence on the level of HLA-DR+ expression or on the concentration
of the main classes of immunoglobulins. An increase in the frequency of seroconversions and the multiplicity of growth in the titers
of specific antibodies to influenza viruses A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B, most pronounced in persons given arbidol along with an anti-influenza vaccine, was established.
PMID: 16438370 [PubMed - in process]
Voen Med Zh. 2004 Sep;325(9):44-5, 80. English (professional tanslation .pdf)
Arbidol used in the prophylaxis of acute respiratory viral infections and their complications in servicemen
Shuster AM, Shumilov VI, Shevtsov VA, Mar'in GG, Kozlov VN.
The prophylactic action of arbidol to prevent the acute respiratory viral
infections and their complications (extra-hospital pneumonia) was studied under conditions of two
military collectives during winter and summer time. The data obtained confirm the prophylactic activity
of the drug in respect of acute respiratory viral infections. Regardless of the degree of disease epidemic
rise among the servicemen who didn't take arbidol the minimal threshold of influenza and other acute
respiratory viral infections incidence (10-15%) remained in the experimental group. The incidence of
pneumonia decreased. It was connected with decrease in viral-and-bacterial pneumonia. The number
of patients with bacterial (generally pneumococcal) pneumonia didn't change.
PMID: 15537102 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Original Russian Document .html
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2004 Jun;26(3):289-93. - Full text not available at this time
Efficacy and safety of arbidol in treatment of naturally acquired influenza
Wang MZ, Cai BQ, Li LY, Lin JT, Su N, Yu HX, Gao H, Zhao JZ, Liu L.
Department of Respiratory Disease, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol in the treatment of naturally acquired influenza. METHODS: A randomized,
double-blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Subjects were enrolled. The inclusion criteria included: aged 18 to 65 years, presented within 36 hours
of onset of influenza symptoms; and had documented temperature of 37.8 degrees C or higher during an influenza outbreak in the community. Individuals were
randomly divided Arbidol group (200 mg three times daily for 5 days) or placebo group.
RESULTS: Totally 232 individuals were recruited and received medication
and follow-up. All of them were qualified to be analyzed for safety as intent-to-treat population (ITT) (113 Arbidol, 109 placebo). Twenty-two (9.48%) were during
follow-up or refused to continue the trial, and 210 completed as scheduled and identified as PP population (102 Arbidol, 108 placebo). Totally 125 individuals were
identified as influenza-infected through laboratory test, which was defined as PPi population (59 Arbidol, 66 placebo). In PPi population, the cumulative alleviation
proportion of Arbidol group was significantly higher than that of placebo group. The median duration of illness was 72.0 hours (95% confident interval (CI) 66.00-78.00
hours) in Arbidol group and 96.0 hours (95% CI 87.46-104.54 hours) in placebo group. The median area under the curve (AUC) of decreased total score were significantly
higher in Arbidol group than in placebo group, which were 780.00 and 684.00 score-hours respectively. For PP population, similar results were seen. Adverse events
reported were similar in Arbidol group and in placebo group. The main adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms and increased transaminase.
CONCLUSION: Arbidol was effective and well tolerated in the treatment of early naturally acquired influenza.
PMID: 15266832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Original Chinese Document (3mb .pdf)
RMZH,Volume 11 No. 21, 2003 English (babblefish .html)
Experience of the application of Arbidol with treatment and preventive maintenance of influenza and ORVI in children in the Ukraine
S.A. Kramarev, L.A. Is chamber National medical university, Kiev, the Ukraine
Influenza and sharp respiratory virus infections (ORVI) are the diseases most common in the Ukraine. Yearly in the country are recorded
tens of millions of cases ORVI, millions of days of disablement, passages of school, connected with them. Economic damage from the influenza only composes about
400 million 10 kopecks per year [ 6 ]. During only one first calendar quarter after the medical aid apropos of influenza and ORVI in the Ukraine they are turned
to 10 million people, among whom 52% comprise the children. The level of morbidity ORVI exceeds the same of all remaining infections among the children 7-7.5 times.
A quantity of sick ORVI of children is 1.5-3.0 times more than adult . For the children the influenza and ORVI are most dangerous. At this age most frequently
are encountered the defeats of central nervous system, from the light neurologic disorders to the heavy defeats of brain, such complications as bronchitis, pneumonia,
acute average otitis are recorded in each third child, sick with influenza and ORVI. The younger the child, the greater he has the probability of the development of
complications. This probability decreases by 20% each of the subsequent 6 years of the life of child [ 11 ]
V.I. Litus, The Ukraine Kiev medical academy of graduate formation
Original Russian Document .html
Voen Med Zh. 2002 Sep;323(9):51-3, 96. - Full text not available at this time
Efficacy of arbidol in prophylaxis and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in servicemen
Shumilov VI, Shuster AM, Lobastov SP, Shevtsov VA, Mednikov BL, Piiavskii SA, Litus VI.
The authors present the results of study of arbidolum therapeutic-and-prophylactic effectiveness
in acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) under conditions of military staff with determination of economic expediency.
Coefficient of effectiveness of arbidolum prophylactic use was 25% and efficiency index--1.33. In experimental group the ARVI
complicated forms were noted in 3% of the patients and in control group--in 5%. Due to decreased expenses on the treatment of
non-complicated and complicated ARVI forms the cost of therapy of one servicemen in the first group was 290.6 rubles, in the
second group--323 rubles, in the third group--336 rubles and in the fourth group--368 rubles. The results of investigation have
shown the significant advantage of arbidolum therapeutic-and-prophylactic use compared with other variants. Its use permitted
to decrease the febrile period, to reduce the manifestation of symptoms of intoxication and affection of upper respiratory tract.
PMID: 12449757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Arbidol Prophylatic Study English (babblefish .html) (or .pdf)
Study of epidemiological effectiveness in the application of domestic preparation of "arbidol" for preventive maintenance
and treating the sharp respiratory virus infections in Moscow
At present there does not exist vaccine preparations against the urgent agents of respiratory infections (with exception
of influenza vaccines), which contributes to the maintenance of the morbidity of adult and children's population at the high level. In connection with
this to completely regularly accentuate attention to the study of epidemiological effectiveness and the application of effective means of the unspecific
preventive maintenance of sharp respiratory virus infections (ORVI).
One of the methods of solution of the problem indicated is the search for the preparations, which combine antiviral activity
with the immunostimulating properties. Unspecific preventive maintenance is shown to people with the clinical signs of the decreased resistance of
the organism: _ frequent respiratory disease with protracted or complicate flow; by the presence of the chronic centers of infections; by severe chronic
somatical illnesses. Not is less urgent unspecific preventive maintenance ORVI among the contingents of the risk, which include medical workers, who
are, in view of the specific character of their activity, those not only by most subjected to the risk of infection, but also the source of infection for the
patients with respect to these infections.
The preformed form of preparation makes it possible to use it in the dispensary- polyclinical network for the mass preventive
maintenance in the period of seasonal and mass lift.
Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow Endocrinology Science Center (Director I.I. Dedov) English (professional translation .pdf)
The influence of arbidol on lipid peroxidation in diabetic patients
N.I. Fadeeva, M.I. Balabolkin, G.G. Mamaeva, R.G. Glushkov, A.P. Knyazeva
TThere has been increased interest in a highly effective antiviral preparation (arbidol 1
methyl 2 phenylmethyl 3 carboethoxyl 4 dimetilaminomethyl 5 oxy 6
bromo-hydrochloride monohydrate), which also has immuno-modulating properties .
Arbidols antioxidant properties  can act as a sort of trap against the peroxidation
The goal of the present study was to examine the influence of arbidol on LPO, and the
effects of antioxidant defense for type II diabetes patients.
Arbidol Childrens Study English (babblefish .html) (or .pdf)
REPORT "Arbidol in the preventive maintenance of the influenza and other sharp respiratory virus infections in children at the age is older than 6 years".
Sharp respiratory infections relate to the number of most extended diseases of man and compose half or more from
the total number of acute diseases (Pilar Orine F.J. and co-auth., 1998). As early as 1979 by the World Health Organization (WHO - WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION) it was recomended to the scientific research associations focus first priority attention on the development of the effective methods
of preventive maintenance and timely diagnostics of respiratory pathology in children. After practically quarter of century the problem of respiratory
infections in children became even more urgent. The diseases of the organs of respiration - most frequent pathology in children (Kagans S.YU. and
co-auth., 1998), which specifies the expediency to isolate sharp respiratory infections into the separate group of the diseases of respiratory system.
The results of epidemiological studies attest to the fact that on the average each child transfers from 3 to 5 episodes ORZ per year (Korovin N.A. and co-auth., 1998).
Obtained data clinically base the expediency of using Arbidol with the therapeutic and prophylactic purpose in the categories of children being
investigated and are the basis of the guarantee of a data base for further estimated studies in the real practice.
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1993 Sep-Oct;(5):40-3. - Full text not available at this time
The new chemical preparation arbidol: its prophylactic efficacy during influenza epidemics
Gagarinova VM, Ignat'eva GS, Sinitskaia LV, Ivanova AM, Rodina MA, Tur'eva AV.
n four controlled observations on the organized groups of students and industrial
workers during the epidemics of influenza A in 1988-1989 Arbidol, a new chemopreparation, was found to be
well tolerated and to produce a pronounced prophylactic effect when administered in a dose of 0.2 g (2 tablets
of 0.1 g) daily for 10-18 days. After the 18-day prophylactic course of Arbidol the induction of serum interferon was found.
PMID: 8067142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]